Effects of BMI on Blood Pressure and Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Chloride and Potassium in Young Paraguayans

Tania Campagnoli, Lorena Gonzalez Stark, Maria de los Angeles Ojeda, Francisco Santacruz, Carlos Franco Palacios


Background: Obesity has been associated with an increased risk for coronary disease, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and mortality. The demographics of Paraguay show that most of the population is of mixed European and Amerindian descent. Most of the studies performed in Hispanics, particularly in the United States fail to identify their country of origin. There is a paucity of data in Paraguay about the relationship between BMI and BP in young adults. Furthermore, there is an increased prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in the country. In this study, we hypothesized that even early increments of BMI are associated with increased blood pressure (BP) readings in young adults in Paraguay. 

Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed in 72 adult participants, from Asuncion Paraguay. There is no similar study published in this country. BMI, BP readings and urinary excretion of Na, K and Cl were studied.

Results: Mean age 25.2 ± 1.52 years. Mean BMI 24.1 ± 3.66. There was a linear relationship between BMI and SBP, DBP, MAP and urine Na, K and Cl across all levels. A multivariate analysis, adjusting for gender, showed that increased BMI is associated with increased BP readings. A BMI of 23.4 was the best cut-off for a BP equal or higher than 135/85 mmHg (pre- hypertension), (AUC = 0.80). A BMI of 24.2 was the best cut off for a BP equal or higher than 140/90 (AUC = 0.80). After excluding participants with SBP equal or higher than 140 mmHg and DBP equal or higher than 90 mmHg, BMI was still associated with increased SBP and DBP even in normotensive individuals. After excluding obese and overweight patients, we found that even a small increase of BMI was associated with an increase in blood pressure.  

Conclusions: BMI values of 24.2 and 23.4 were associated with BP of 140/90 and 135/85 respectively. Since the BMI cut-off for obesity was established in different cohorts, we might need to create a more specific set of values for the Paraguayan population, as the values proposed by the American Heart Association are probably rather high for this population.



BMI; Hypertension; Paraguayan adults 

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World Journal of Nephrology and Urology, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1239 (print), 1927-1247 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.        
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