World Journal of Nephrology and Urology, ISSN 1927-1239 print, 1927-1247 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, World J Nephrol Urol and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 4, Number 2, June 2015, pages 189-200

Contemporary Management and Trends in the Treatment of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Low-power and high-power microscopic appearance of (A) PUNLMP, (B) low-grade urothelial carcinoma, and (C) high-grade urothelial carcinoma.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Treatment algorithm for UTUC per available guidelines.


Table 1. TNM Staging Classification for UTUC
*Regional lymph nodes: kidney - hilar, abdominal pera-aortic, abdominal paracaval; ureter - intrapelvic nodes. Laterality does not affect the N classification.
Primary tumor
  TXTumor cannot be assessed
  T0No evidence of primary tumor
  TaPapillary noninvasive tumor
  TisCarcinoma in situ
  T1Invasion of subepithelial connective tissue/lamina propria
  T2Invasion of muscularis propria
  T3Invasion of renal parenchyma or peripelvic/periureteral fat
  T4Invasion of adjacent organs or through parenchyma into perinephric fat
Regional lymph nodes*
  NXRegional nodes cannot be assessed
  N0Negative nodes
  N1Single node < 2 cm
  N2Single node 2 - 5 cm; multiple nodes < 5 cm
  N3Multiple nodes > 5 cm
  M0No distant metastasis
  M1Distant metastasis
  TXTumor cannot be assessed
  T0No evidence of primary tumor