Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Egypt: Potential Risk Factors

Sania Amr, Christopher A. Loffredo, Kathleen M. McClain, Bhaskar Kallakury, Yun-Ling Zheng

Abstract


Background: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the urinary bladder have been well studied worldwide, but little is known about adenocarcinoma aside from its clinical features. Our objective was to examine associations between adenocarcinoma and known risk factors for UC and SCC in Egypt.

Methods: We used data from our multi-center case-control study in Egypt where questionnaires inquired about tobacco smoking, schistosomiasis and other exposures by 101 cases of bladder adenocarcinoma and 3,737 population-based controls. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of these associations.

Results: The mean (SD) age for adenocarcinoma was 55.3 (9.8) and 54.2 (11.3) among men and women, respectively. There was an association with schistosomiasis, albeit higher for women than for men (AOR (95% CI): 4.58 (2.13 - 9.86) and 1.77 (1.05 - 2.98), respectively). Among men, smoking either cigarettes or water pipes was associated with adenocarcinoma (1.78 (0.85 - 3.75) or 1.97 (0.79 - 4.91), respectively), and the highest risk (3.34 (1.38 - 8.09)) was among those who smoked both water pipes and cigarettes.

Conclusion: Smoking both cigarette and water pipe tobacco was associated with increased risk for adenocarcinoma of the bladder among males in this study, as was a history of schistosomiasis in both men and women.




World J Nephrol Urol. 2015;4(3):227-231
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/wjnu228w

 


Keywords


Bladder cancer; Adenocarcinoma; Tobacco smoking; Schistosomiasis; Epidemiology

Full Text: HTML PDF
 

Browse  Journals  

     

Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics

 

 

 

 

 

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1239 (print), 1927-1247 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.wjnu.org   editorial contact: editor@wjnu.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada
© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.